About Bob Marley / Quien es Bob Marley – Historia
Robert Nesta Marley, más conocido como Bob Marley (Nine Mile, Saint Ann, Jamaica; 6 de febrero de 1945-Miami, Florida, Estados Unidos; 11 de mayo de 1981), fue un músico, guitarrista y compositor jamaicano. Durante su carrera musical fue el líder, compositor y guitarrista de las bandas The Wailers (1964-1974) y Bob Marley & The Wailers (1974-1980). Marley sigue siendo el más conocido y respetado intérprete de la música reggae y es acreditado por ayudar a difundir tanto la música de Jamaica como el movimiento rastafari (del que era un miembro comprometido) a una audiencia mundial.
Entre sus mayores éxitos se encuentran los sencillos «I Shot the Sheriff», «No Woman, No Cry», «Jamming», «Redemption Song» y, junto con The Wailers, «Three Little Birds», así como el lanzamiento póstumo «Buffalo Soldier». El álbum recopilatorio Legend, lanzado por Island Records en 1984, tres años después de su muerte, es el álbum de reggae más vendido de la historia con 15 discos de platino en los Estados Unidos y más de 28 millones de copias en todo el mundo.
originsRobert Nesta Marley, was born on February 6, 1945 in Nine Mile (Rhoden Hall, Saint Ann Parish), a small town north of the island of Jamaica, in the Caribbean Sea. He was the son of Cedella Booker, an Afro-Jamaican who was 18 years old when Bob was born5 and Norval Marley, a white Jamaican of English descent (his family came from Essex), captain of the Royal Marines (British Marines), who considered himself English, because when he entered the British Armed Forces for World War I, on the form he said he was English, so that he would not be questioned more (and because at that time Jamaica was a colony of the United Kingdom and its white population had British nationality). Norval’s date of birth is controversial since according to many sources he was born in 1895 (so he would have been 50 years old when his son Bob Marley was born) but according to other sources he was born much earlier, in 1881. Although Norval helped his wife financially and his son, he rarely saw his son for spending time traveling; Furthermore, according to some sources, his mother (Bob’s grandmother) was pressuring him to stay away from the boy because of racist prejudice.  Bob’s father died when he was 9 years old, in 1954.
Bob Marley had to endure ridicule and scorn from Jamaican blacks for his condition as a mulatto (mestizo product of the mixture of black and white), especially in his childhood, adolescence and early youth (it is said that the brother of his first girlfriend He told her that “we don’t want white people in this house”). But later Marley was indifferent to these slights and said he was not ashamed of his racial mix; although he identified himself simply as black and that was the only part of his racial heritage that he showed any interest in.
Nine Miles is a town that is three hours from the capital, Kingston. Cedella Booker struggled every day to raise her son, they lived in poverty, so they didn’t have water or electricity at home. Living like this in Nine Miles, Bob Marley met who would become his friend Bunny Wailer. Cedella and Bunny’s father began to have a relationship, and it is for this reason that Bob Marley and Bunny Wailer shared a sister. As a family of five, seeking prosperity, they moved to Kingston, the capital of Jamaica. It was with Wailer, with whom Marley began to be interested in music, coming to compose and play some songs. Very influenced by the music of Ray Charles, Curtis Mayfield, Brook Benton or Fats Domino, and by groups like The Drifters very popular in Jamaica that were heard on the radio broadcasts of stations in the south of the United States. Bob Marley alternated work in a foundry company (where one eye was burned), with music. Bob Marley and Bunny Wailer received musical training from Joe Higgs, a long-lost singer who had enjoyed some fame in Jamaica and who made a living by teaching singing lessons for beginners. In one of those classes they met another young musician named Winston Hubert McIntosh (Peter Tosh). In 1962 Bob Marley auditioned for a music producer named Leslie Kong who, impressed, invited him to record some songs. The following year Marley decided that the best way to achieve his dream was perhaps planned, we will not know, through a group. He shared his idea with Bunny and Peter and the three of them formed the Wailing Wailers (literally, ‘shouts of protest’). The new group won the sympathy of Rastafarian percussionist Alvin Patterson, who introduced them to producer Clement Dodd. In mid-1963 Dodd saw the Wailing Wailers and decided to promote the group. The Wailing Wailers released their first single, “Simmer Down,” on the Coxsone label in late 1963. The original line-up consisted of Marley, Bunny Wailer, Peter Tosh, Junior Braithwaite and two backup singers, Beverly Kelso and Cherry Smith.
The WailersMeanwhile, Bob Marley’s mother, Cedella, had remarried and moved to Delaware after a major financial effort. She wanted to give Marley a new life in this country, but before the trip, he met Rita Anderson and on February 10, 1966 they were married. Bob Marley spent just eight months with his mother in Wilmington, Delaware. There he gets a night shift job at a Chrysler auto plant. Bob Marley arrived in Kingston in October 1966, just six months after the visit of the Ethiopian Emperor Hailè Selassiè, who promoted and renewed the important Rastafarian movement on the island. Marley’s approach to Rastafarian belief begins to be reflected in his music. Marley, meanwhile, called on Peter and Bunny to reform the band The Wailing Wailers as The Wailers. Rita also began her singing career with a major hit called Pied Piper, a cover of an English pop song. In Jamaica, the frenetic wave of ska was giving way to a slower, more sensual rhythm called rocksteady. The Rastafarian beliefs of the Wailers collided with Dodd and they founded their own record label, Wail’N’Soul. Despite achieving some successes, the label did not live up to expectations and went bankrupt in 1967. The group survived as songwriters for a company associated with an American singer, Johnny Nash, who in the following decade would have a great success with the song « Stir it Up »by Bob Marley.
The Wailers then met a man who would revolutionize their work: Lee Perry. The partnership between Perry and the Wailers brought with it some of the band’s most notable hits such as “Soul Rebel”, “Duppy Conqueror”, “400 Years” and “Small Ax”, classics of the future reggae. In 1970, two of the island’s most renowned musicians, Aston ‘Family Man’ Barrett and his brother Carlton (bass and drums, respectively) joined the Wailers, who were sweeping the Caribbean at the time, but remained unknown internationally. .
In the summer of 1971 Marley accepted an invitation from Johnny Nash to accompany him to Sweden, when he signed a contract with CBS, the American’s record company. In the spring of 1972 the Wailers landed in England to promote the single Reggae on Broadway, but they were not very successful. In desperation, Marley visited the recording studios of Island Records, which had been the first record company to take an interest in Jamaican music, and asked to speak to its founder, Chris Blackwell. Blackwell knew the Wailers and offered them four thousand pounds to record an album with the latest technological advances in the music industry, the same ones enjoyed by rock bands of the time. That first album was Catch a Fire, heavily promoted by Island. The album was not an imminent success, as Marley’s socially committed music and lyrics contrasted quite a bit with what was being done until then in Europe. Island promoted a tour of the group in England and the United States, another first for a reggae band. The Wailers played London in April 1973 and three months later the group returned to Jamaica. Bunny Wailer, disappointed in the musical life, left the band before the American tour. In his place came Joe Higgs, the Wailers’ old music teacher. Already in the United States, they participated in some concerts of Bruce Springsteen and Sly & The Family Stone, the main American black music band of the moment.
In 1973 the group released their second album, Burnin ‘, with the record company Island Records, an album that included new versions of some of their biggest songs, such as: “Duppy Conqueror”, “Small Ax” and “Put It On” , along with “Get Up, Stand Up” and “I Shot The Sheriff.” It was precisely this last song that established Bob Marley internationally with the voice of Eric Clapton, reaching first place in the list of the best-selling singles in the United States. In 1974, Bob Marley spent much of his time in the studio working on Natty Dread, an album that featured songs like “Talkin ‘Blues”, “No Woman No Cry”, “So Jah Seh”, “Revolution”, “Them Belly Full (But We Hungry) “or” Rebel Music (3 o’clock Roadblock) “. By then before the Natty Dread recordings began, Bunny and Peter withdrew from the group for good to embark on their solo careers, prompting the band to become known as Bob Marley & The Wailers. Natty Dread was released in October 1974. As for the tours, two stand out: one at the Lyceum Ballroom in London, which was listed as one of the best of the decade (The Live album is this concert). And the second in November, when Marley returned to Jamaica to play a charity concert with Stevie Wonder, already as a superstar in his country and in the world. Rastaman Vibration, the next studio album, was released in 1976. The work included songs such as “Crazy Baldhead”, “Johnny Was”, “Who The Cap Fit” and, perhaps most significantly of all, “War”, whose lyrics were extracted from a speech by Emperor Hailè Selassiè, at the United Nations.